Management Hall of Fame
Most Respected Management Gurus
The Hierarchy of Human Needs (1908-1970)
Theory of the "hierarchy of human needs".
Abraham Maslow was one of the first scholars to be associated with the
humanistic approach to management (- as opposed to task-based management).
Maslow categorized human needs into a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest
to the highest. Maslow's model remains a valuable management concept. The
five levels within the hierarchy can be broken down as follows. A person
generally must satisfy the lower level before working on the higher levels
- Survival or physiological needs. Comprising all the basic animal
requirements such as food, water, shelter, warmth, and sleep.
- Security or safety needs. In physical, social and financial terms;
they are translated into free from physical harm, having job security or
earning a living wage.
- Social needs. Most humans are essentially social beings and they
seek membership of social groups to belong to.
- Ego-status needs. Most Humans seek respect (self-image or
self-esteem) need is satisfied by power, prestige, knowledge, and
- Self-actualization needs. This translates into self-realization,
self-expression and self-fulfillment. The desire to maximize a person's
skills and talents.
Related work/concepts include Humanistic psychology, Human Potential
Movement, Organismic theory, Positive Disintegration, Post-materialism,
and Organizational behavior
- Received his B.A. (1930), his M.A. (1932), and his Ph.D. (1934)
in psychology from University of Wisconsin-Madison.
- He met and studied with Harry Harlow, who was known for his
controversial experiments on rhesus monkeys and attachment behavior.
- A year after graduation, Maslow returned to New York to work
with E. L. Thorndike at Columbia University.
- Maslow taught full time at Brooklyn College. During this time
he met many leading European psychologists, including Alfred Adler
and Erich Fromm.
- In 1951, Maslow became the chairman of the psychology department
at Brandeis University, where he began his theoretical work. There,
he met Kurt Goldstein, who introduced him to the idea of
self-actualization. Later, Maslow developed self-actualization into
an area for research and application.
- Died in 1970, aged 62, after years of ill health.
Abraham Maslow, Motivation and Personality.
New York: Harper and Row
Abraham Maslow, The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. Viking Press
- Abraham Maslow,
Eupsychian Management(1965, republished as
Maslow on Management, 1998)
- Abraham Maslow,
Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance New
York: Harper & Row, 1966.
- Abraham Maslow, Toward a Psychology of
(2nd Edition: 1968) -Excerpts (1955-1957)
- Maslow on Self-Actualizing People
-excerpts from Maslow on Management
- Abraham Maslow Reconsidered: Maslow reconsidered: A review of
research on the need hierarchy theory
- Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 15, 212-240
- Mook, D.G. (1987). Motivation: Motivation: The Organization of
Action. London: W.W. Norton & Company Ltd (ISBN 0-393-95474-9)
- The Right to be Human by Edward Hoffmanby Edward Hoffman
- The Founders of Humanistic Psychologyby Roy Jose DeCarvalho
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