Management Hall of Fame
Most Respected Management Gurus
The Hierarchy of Human Needs (1908-1970)
Theory of the "hierarchy of human needs".
Abraham Maslow was one of the first scholars to be associated with the humanistic approach to management (- as opposed to task-based management). Maslow categorized human needs into a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest. Maslow's model remains a valuable management concept. The five levels within the hierarchy can be broken down as follows. A person generally must satisfy the lower level before working on the higher levels
- Survival or physiological needs. Comprising all the basic animal requirements such as food, water, shelter, warmth, and sleep.
- Security or safety needs. In physical, social and financial terms; they are translated into free from physical harm, having job security or earning a living wage.
- Social needs. Most humans are essentially social beings and they seek membership of social groups to belong to.
- Ego-status needs. Most Humans seek respect (self-image or self-esteem) need is satisfied by power, prestige, knowledge, and self-confidence.
- Self-actualization needs. This translates into self-realization, self-expression and self-fulfillment. The desire to maximize a person's skills and talents.
Related work/concepts include Humanistic psychology, Human Potential Movement, Organismic theory, Positive Disintegration, Post-materialism, and Organizational behavior
- Received his B.A. (1930), his M.A. (1932), and his Ph.D. (1934) in psychology from University of Wisconsin-Madison.
- He met and studied with Harry Harlow, who was known for his controversial experiments on rhesus monkeys and attachment behavior.
- A year after graduation, Maslow returned to New York to work with E. L. Thorndike at Columbia University.
- Maslow taught full time at Brooklyn College. During this time he met many leading European psychologists, including Alfred Adler and Erich Fromm.
- In 1951, Maslow became the chairman of the psychology department at Brandeis University, where he began his theoretical work. There, he met Kurt Goldstein, who introduced him to the idea of self-actualization. Later, Maslow developed self-actualization into an area for research and application.
- Died in 1970, aged 62, after years of ill health.
- Abraham Maslow, Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row
- Abraham Maslow, The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. Viking Press
- Abraham Maslow, Eupsychian Management(1965, republished as Maslow on Management, 1998)
- Abraham Maslow, Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance New York: Harper & Row, 1966.
- Abraham Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being (2nd Edition: 1968) -Excerpts (1955-1957)
- Maslow on Self-Actualizing People -excerpts from Maslow on Management (1998)
- Abraham Maslow Reconsidered: Maslow reconsidered: A review of research on the need hierarchy theory
- Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 15, 212-240
- Mook, D.G. (1987). Motivation: Motivation: The Organization of Action. London: W.W. Norton & Company Ltd (ISBN 0-393-95474-9)
- The Right to be Human by Edward Hoffmanby Edward Hoffman
- The Founders of Humanistic Psychologyby Roy Jose DeCarvalho
Executive Education and Management Training
- The institute researchs, develops, and disseminates management-best-practices and learned-lessons from leading CEOs and Management Gurus. For advanced executive education and management training courses, please visit the Executive Education Courses.