Happiness Economics & Wellbeing Public Policy
Sustainable Socioeconomic Development Policy
Gross National Wellbeing and Happiness
GNW / GNH Index
In 2005, the institute introduced the first Gross National Happiness and Wellbeing Index. The GNW / GNH Index solution was created to help guide and measure socioeconomic development. In 2006, he published a highly respected white paper that outlined recommendations for GNW Index policies and implementation. The recommended solution is considered a breakthrough in economic thinking. Several prominent initiatives followed with similar solution design and policy recommendations. Among them are Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission (published 2009) commissioned by President Sarkozy in France, the OECD Better Life Index (2011), the UK Wellbeing Index (2011) commissioned by President Cameron in Britain, and the Bhutan local GNH Index (2012) commission by the 4th King Wangchuck.
Disambiguation: The coining of the Gross National Happiness (GNH) phrase and the creation of the GNH Index are widely misattributed to Bhutan by the media and academia. The phrase was used by Sicco Mansholt, the 4th President of European Commission many years before Bhutan used it. The first GNH Index was published by the International Institute of Management several years before Bhutan created and published a their local GNH Index. The Bhutan GNH Index was created to preserve the local Buddhist religious and cultural traditions, it included measurements of the number of prayers and karma indicators. The IIM GNH Index is a global scientific index that is designed to measure citizens' wellbeing independently of religious affiliations. If you have any questions, feel free to contact us.
(Note: Some excerpts are translated into English from their native language)
In The Pursuit of Personal and
The concept at the heart of the Bhutanese approach is not dissimilar from the metric used by Med Jones is based on a series of statistical measurements and public opinion testing of what he calls economic wellness...Economic Wellness include issues like consumer and national debt, fairness of income distribution, and the relationship between and earnings and prices...Perhaps Mr. Cameron and President Sarkozy will discover that there are certain universal truths attached to what makes people and nations happy.
Director of Strategy & Communications for U.K. Prime Minister Tony Blair
Health Care and Life Satisfaction in Spain
..the Gross National Well-being (GNW), which was the first of its kind combining subjective measures (satisfaction) and objective data (economic indicators), tracking 7 different areas of wellness. This index set the first framework for future research combining both subjective and objective data... In 2008, the French president Nicolas Sarcozy, assessed by two Nobel Prizes, under the name The Quality Life Commission , announced a revolutionary plan to include happiness and well-being among the key indicators of economic progress"
Analysis for the Period 2002 - 2014
Iban Ortuzar Fern ndez, Economics Paper
University of Girona
Integrated Model for Sustainable
Med Yones, President of International Institute of Management in 2006 stated that along with economic growth the other important factors for general happiness are Environmental, Physical, Mental, Workplace, Social and Political wellness
Vineet. H. Varma ; Gopi Chattopadhyay
Industrial Engineering Journal 2008 - ieeexplore.ieee.org
Central Queensland University, Australia
The Ethical Implications of
Value for New Economic Thinking
The above seven metrics were incorporated into the first Global GNH Survey.
Economics (Page 112)
M. R. Griffiths, Governor British Institute of Florence, (Italy)
J. R. Lucas, Fellow British Academy, University of Oxford, (UK)
ON THE QUESTION OF THE FORMATION OF A
NEW PARADIGM OF ECONOMIC THEORY
Since the 1950s, one can observe the formation of new scientific directions on the border of economic theory with other social sciences: economic sociology , economic psychology, etc. This proves the inevitability of a significant transformation of the theory of neoclassical synthesis, which is isolated from factors of a non-economic nature...
[2006 Med Jones approach] to happiness measurement gives many prospects for the development of economic science. The complexity of this concept is very important to help bring economics to a new level of development.
Journal of Scientific Publications
Osetrov V.N., Senior Lecturer, Department of General Economic Theory,
Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg
Nations' Global Happiness Measurement
The [Bhutan] National Happiness Index (GNH) lived for three decades the King's vision without having attracted much attention in the world. Obviously, in addition to the lack of a universal definition of happiness, [and the difficulty to be] measured objectively it hindered the Bhutanese initiative to have a global echo In 2005, Gross National Well-being (GNW) created by economist Med Jones at International Institute of Management Happiness Planet Index in 2006 led by Nic Mars an activist in London's New Economic Foundation in London The Paris based OECD established Better Life Index in 2011 . The United Nations General Assembly itself received on 19 July 2011 a decision to compare the state of development of the countries (65/309): "Happiness: the holistic development framework In June 2012, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution (A / RES / 66/281) that the 20th Anniversary of every year should be the International Day of Happiness.
Professor Geza Ankerl,
Specialist in International Bodies, Adviser to the United Nations in Geneva
University of Geneva and Budapest University
Hungarian National Library - Economic Sociology
Beyond the Digital Divide: A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing
Knowledge Societies (2008)
So we have a Gross National Happiness (GNH) Index proposed in 2006 by the US-based International Institute of Management that considers the cultural trait of being happy and content as a socioeconomic development metric encompassing a society's mental and emotional health. However, with some exceptions, many of these aspects of how a society lives with fulfilling knowledge, have yet to enter into the lexicon of most knowledge policy planners.
Journal of Knowledge Management (2008)
Ravi S Sharma, Elaine W. J. Ng, Mathias Dharmawirya, and Lee Chu Keong.
Wee Kim Wee School of Communication & Information
Nanyang Technological University
National Happiness (GNH) - The internationalization of a concept and
national challenge. (January 8, 2009)
A second-generation GNH concept, treating happiness as a socioeconomic development metric, was proposed in 2006 by Med Yones, the president of the International Institute of Management. The metric measures socioeconomic development by tracking 7 development area including the nation's mental and emotional health GNH value is proposed to be an index function of the total average per capita...The above 7 metrics were incorporated into the first Global GNH Survey...
In Thimphu 24-26 Nov.2008, the GNH Conference explored methods of measurement of GNH... In a bid to measure happiness the Center for Bhutan Studies (CBS) has constructed a single number Gross National Happiness Index. "The GNH index tries to bring into one number the nine dimensions of GNH" explained Sabina Alkire, the director of Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative, who co-authored the study with Dasho Karma Ura, the president of CBS.
Joseph Stiglitz, Nobel Prize for Economics 2001 and former vice president of the Bank world, said at a conference on development in Cleveland USA, 2008, that "standard measures of GNP do not take account for the degradation of the environment and natural resources".
Director of Research, France's National Center for Scientific Research
and Adjunct Professor at Royal University of Bhutan (Bhutan)
French Ministry of Education and Research. (France)
Restructuring the Global Economy (2008)
The current global economic crisis (2008) has its roots in the mindset and lifestyle of people in general.... A new economic index that is centered on wellness rather than material growth needs to be adopted by governments to reframe their policies and programs. GNW or GNH (Gross National Wellness/Happiness) is an index that would fit this requirement. Thus it would be in the fitness of things and conducive to Human Union and Global Harmony that GNH or GNW, a new comprehensive index for socioeconomic growth and development is adopted at the national and global levels. The current economic crisis provides an opportunity for making this transition. In fact this may be the only viable way out to rescue the world from a worsening crisis that is born out of a system that is built on false premises.
Professor at Madras Medical College, Chennai
Report for Congressman Hansen Clarke
21st Century GDP: National Indicators for a New Era: Findings & Recommendations: Congress should prescribe the broad parameters of new, carefully designed supplemental national indicators...[Appendix: Taxonomy of Alternative Indicators: (Page 91 & 93)] Med Jones (proposal)..to measure a generalized GNH by assessing seven different areas of wellness: economic, environmental, physical, mental, workplace, social, and political. Most wellness areas include both subjective results (via survey) and objective data.
Ben Beachy & Justin Zorn, PhDs.
John F. Kennedy School of Government
Government of Goa: 2035 Vision and Roadmap
Happiness is treated as a socioeconomic development metric in 2006 by Med Jones. He tracked seven development areas. [The development council] proposes that Goa should become the first state in India to start the process of measuring happiness ...Goa considers this (happiness) to be the most critical socioeconomic development Indicator. The council also wishes Goa to be not only the happiness state in India but the world.
Report to Chief Minister (page 111)
Chairman and Members of the Goa Development Council
Government of State of Goa 2011-2012
Philosophy and Management's Conference
A composite index proposed by the International Institute of Management pursues the same ambition to quantify happiness, encompassing 7 factors: the economic, the environment, physical health, mental health, well-being at work, the good social, political health. The Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi commission, created at the initiative of President Sarkozy in France, also examined the problem. The OECD has launched an interactive indicator "Better Living" which aims to enable everyone to measure and compare their own quality of life by going beyond the traditional framework of Gross Domestic Product statistics. Finally, the UN is taking a close interest in research on new development indicators: it has thus created a "Working Group for a New Development Paradigm.."
Director of "Philosophy and Management".
Academic Director, Solvay, Brussels School, the Louvain School of Management and HEC Li ge
Chairman of the Management Committee of the Federal Public Service for Mobility and Transport (DG of the Belgian Ministry of Transport).
Colab - A Global Proposal
We are going through one of the greatest social transformations in history the shift from the Industrial Age to the Information Age...For the first time in history we have the capabilities and tools to collaborate globally using a scientific systems approach to addressing human needs.
Rationale for the proposal:
(1) The need for new measures of social and economic health..
(2) Information Age Economy - based on measures of satisfying Human Needs and Values...
Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness - these are simple principles that the vast majority of people in the world would agree are fundamental human needs An Information Age Economy will focus on delivering a happy and abundant life in the most economical way to the worlds people...
Discovery Reference: International Institute of Management's Gross National Happiness (GNH) - A Policy White Paper
Ted Schulman, Managing Partner, Transformative Communities
MIT Center for Collective Intelligence
Book: Ecological Economics: Principles and Applications
The first global study on GNH included multi-criteria measures of economic, environmental, physical, mental, social, workplace and political wellness (by IIM).
Herman E. Daly School of Maryland, School of Public Affairs
and Former Senior Economist World Bank
Dr. Joshua Farley, PhD, Agricultural Economics,
Cornell University and Executive Director of Gund Institute of Ecological Economics
Happiness research is gaining popularity among scientists as well as in politics and the public. But what exactly does that mean and where does the endeavor to make "happiness" measurable? Already Aristotle described the "happiness" as "the goal of all human aspirations and longings". For thousands of years, the question of happiness and its accessibility in philosophy, at Stammtisch and in literary advisers. But only in recent years has the trend to calculate and compare it.
Different studies in turn swear by different indicators and measurement methods. The sudden focus of politics is only consistent... [Governments] do not always make the most happiness-friendly choices in terms of long-term sustainable development. For example, the promotion of long [working] hours and extra consumption are at the expense of human well-being and environmental sustainability. As a result, according to American researcher Med Jones, the economic growth by a happier and more balanced population will come on its own. Happier people are not only generally more efficient, but are also in a healthier state of health.
Msc. Geographic Development Studies
The University of Bonn
Policy Innovations for Governance: A Proposal to the Federal
Government of Nigeria
These innovations can help manage important policy priorities such as poverty alleviation, economic empowerment, high crime rate, civil conflicts, and risks to states integrity...In Y2000, the United Nations (UN) launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) initiative but many countries, including Nigeria lagged behind. The main reason was the lack of integrated decision-making framework and a proper measurement and management system...To comply with the United Nations (UN) happiness and wellbeing initiatives, I looked at various development and public management frameworks... When comparing other happiness and wellbeing frameworks around the world, they appear to be either derived from this (IIM GNW Index of 2005) model or very like its core framework... From a technical point of view, GNW framework and Index innovation did to happiness and wellbeing economics what GDP did to traditional economics; before these metrics, economic measurements were fragmented across sectors and difficult to quantify and manage.
Folasade Adesoye, Permanent Secretary
Ministry of Women Affairs and Poverty Alleviation (WAPA)
An Alternative to GDP
A model proposed in 2006 by Med Yones at the International Institute of Management. By measuring seven developmental areas, including the nation's mental and emotional health. GNH becomes an index that gives an average value per inhabitant. The areas measured are the individual's economics, environment, physical, psychology, workplace as well as social and political factors. In Sweden, a lot of this is already measured, but we are missing is a collective term and a common index that gives us the ability to see if developments are improving or deteriorating.
AnnCharlotte Stewart, PhD
The History of Gross National Happiness
From modern political history, one can see happiness emphasized as part of a political philosophy, when the phrase pursuit of happiness was used as an important human right in 1776 Declaration of Independence of the United States. However, happiness policy remained an abstract idea, with no specific or real legislative, scientific and economic implementation framework....For about three decades, no real progress was made inside Bhutan...Most western economists considered the Bhutan GNH concept as touchy-feely until the introduction of the first scientific and secular GNH Index in 2005 (also known as GNW Index) by Med Jones, an American Economist at the International Institute of Management. Nicolas Sarkozy started a similar initiative in France calling for the inclusion of happiness and well-being in the criteria for national governance policies. He commissioned two Nobel Laureates and a French Economist, Joseph Stiglitz, Amartya Sen, and Jean Paul Fitoussi to develop a new framework for measuring happiness and well-being to overcome the limitation of GDP.... When comparing the message, language, and recommendations of IIM GNW of 2005 with CMEPSP report of 2009, one can find they are almost identical.
Professor of History, Economics Department
Universidad Dr. Rafael Belloso Chac n (URBE)
Selling Happiness - A Thesis on Strategies in the Pursuit of
Obviously, due to the subjective weight associated to happiness, it is a difficult metric to quantify...Later on, GNH was recognized as a reliable socioeconomic measurement tool. An attempt to compute this approach was Med Jones's formula. Jones as stated that national policies had to be reviewed and new perspectives had to take into account happiness national outcomes and not just economic and businesses results (Jones, 2006) ....All those indicators being computed via direct survey and statistical measurements .(Jones, 2006). These indicators were also incorporated in the first Global GNH Survey (Jones, 2006)
ISCTE Business School
University of Lisbon
Dalai Lama and Laurens van den Muyzenberg. What Buddhism Can bring to
Professor Daniel Kahneman, Princeton University psychologist, Nobel Prize for Economics in 2002...According to his research, happiness can be measured by following a day reconstruction method, which consists of recalling memories of the day previous work by writing a diary. In 2006, a second series of measurements and contents of the BNB (GNH) is proposed by Med Yones, President of the International Institute of Management. Its metric measurement system socio-economic includes the mental and emotional well-being of a given country and the value of BNB, which is a function of indices of all the average per capita of (seven wellbeing dimensions).
Librairie Vuibert, Paris, 2008, 201 pages. (Review Date March 2009 - Page 27)
Ye YAO, Master in Prospective, Strategy, Organization
Under the supervision of Prof. Yvon PESQUEUX
Conservatoire national des arts et m tiers (CNAM) France
An Econometric Solution for Lebanon's Public Policy Management
The study explores groundbreaking and popular proposals that can be used for development for the Lebanese government... Upon analysis of the four measurement systems, it appears that the most important transformative developments originated by researchers at independent private think tanks, namely the GNW Index... The multidimensional integration of Gross National Wellbeing Index shifted the definition from psychology to economics and allowed economists to compute wellbeing as one metric to serve as a proxy to measure government performance, citizens wellbeing and development. Upon detailed analysis, it is clear that the OECD Better Life Index, BLI (2012) is based on CMEPSP Framework recommendations (2009) and both of them are strikingly similar to the original Gross National Wellbeing (2005).
MBA & Accounting Information Systems Program
Lebanese International University (LIU)
Sustainable Consumption Research and Action Initiative (SCORAI)
..feasibilities of using design for sustainable consumption and development will be constructed on the basis of historical and theoretical perspectives of research relevant to the problem, discovered by SCORAI network... A professor of economics Deirdre McCloskey (Chicago University) argues that a sense of happiness are the words of particular moment but the first Gross National Happiness (GNH) Survey analysed satisfaction of people using seven different indicator, including capability to satisfy economic conditions and quality of live environment: economic satisfaction (savings, debt and purchase power); environmental satisfaction: (pollution, noise and traffic); workplace satisfaction (job satisfaction, motivation, ethics, conflict, etc.); physical health (severe illnesses, overweight); mental health (usage of antidepressants, self-esteem, positive outlook); social satisfaction, including family and relationship satisfaction (domestic disputes, communication, support, sex, discrimination, safety, divorce rates, complaints of domestic conflicts and family lawsuits, public lawsuits, crime rates, etc.); political satisfaction (quality of local democracy, individual freedom, and foreign conflicts, etc.) (Jones).... there is an apparent difference in providing social wellbeing by GDP and GNH indexes: the first one reflects material and economic wealth, the second one social aspect, i.e. satisfaction with life in general.
Professor Dr. Aija Freimane,
Postdoctoral Research Fellow Design Thinking and Paradigm Shift of Design
A Modern History of Happiness as Economic Policy
The Global GNW/GNH Survey and the GNW/GNH Index proposed in 2005 have been developed with the aim of measuring Happiness and Well-being across populations in different countries. The key recommendations were to use an integrated decision framework and measurement tool that combines subjective and objective measures and helps governments manage development policies. The Bhutan Local GNH Index is similar to the econometric framework of the first scientific (and secular) GNH (GNW) framework and Index published in 2005.... The publishing of the framework was a turning point that allowed economists to formulate similar policies like the GNH framework inside and outside Bhutan... [The Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress (CMEPSP] report provided similar recommendations to those of the GNW / GNH paper of 2005.
Professor Deidre Rose, Ph.D.
Department of Sociology and Anthropology
University of Guelph
Community Wellness Plan - Sustainable Development Plan 2009
Adapted from Med Yones, 2006, The Gross National Happiness concept clearly captures the complexity of sustainable development, and includes both human and social indicators, including indicators of: 1.0 Economic Wellness; 2.0 Environmental Wellness; 3.0 Physical Wellness; 4.0 Mental Wellness 5.0; Workplace Wellness; 6.0 Social Wellness; 7.0 Political Wellness ...The Green Light District's vision is ambitious making the Southside of Williamsburg the most sustainable neighborhood in the country. (See pages 103-118 for GNW Implementation)
The Green Light District (Brooklyn)
Community Wellness Plan Studio - New York City Government.
Pratt Institute - El Puente
Edmonton City Economic Development Vision 2030
The focus for EEDC is on outcomes associated with commitment to a long-term vision. Understandably it is important to also develop near-term indicators as tools to evaluate progress. Involvement of the community is foundational to both. Potential Measurement Approaches: ..Treating happiness as a socioeconomic development metric (by the International Institute of Management)
Sustainable Development Report Recommendations
Edmonton City, Alberta Canada
Bangladesh Planning Commission: Shortcomings of GDP and Wellbeing Measurement
One of the objectives of this project is to expand the capacity of the public planners so that the planners have the basic understanding on how an economy works, particularly a developing economy like Bangladesh. With better understanding of the economy and the public policies, planners will be able to analyze the economic issues with greater rigor and confidence and this will be reflected in crafting national policy documents....The general consensus is that an increase in GDP of a country means that its people are better off. But this may not always be the case as GDP data are far from being perfect measures of economic welfare.... [Gross National Happiness] concept has now evolved into a socioeconomic development framework... A related concept is that of the Gross National Wellness (GNW) Index, developed in 2005 by the International Institute of Management in USA. This index is based on the following seven dimensions: economic, environmental, physical, mental, work, social and political.
Introduction to Macroeconomics [With Application to Bangladesh
Dr. Kazi Iqbal, Senior Economist, UNDP Sustainable and Inclusive Planning (SSIP) Project
Amin Bin Hasib, General Economics Division (GED)
Republic of Bangladesh
Arab Statistical Conference 2009.
To develop a measure of progress in societies that takes into account the social, cultural and economic dimensions, where some have this indicator takes into account the growth of the GNH Index Happiness Index (GNH) (Ref: Med Yones, 2006)
Dr. Louay Shabana Regional Director for Arab States
United Nations Population Fund
Ethiopian Society of Sociologists, Social Workers and
Linking Policy and Strategic Trajectories in Social Capital Development and Civic Engagement... Testing the GNH methodology and metric measures of human wellness (See page 7-12 for Gross National Wellness and Happiness Application)
Costantinos, PhD School of Graduate Studies
Department of Management and Public Policy, College of Management, Information and Economic Sciences
Addis Ababa University
Qualitative and Quantitative Indicators
One of the biggest criticisms of the GNH, as a socioeconomic development metric, has been that it is difficult to measure progress toward its goals. A second-generation GNH concept was proposed in 2006 by Med Jones, the president of the International Institute of Management. The metric measures socioeconomic development by tracking seven development areas including the nation's mental and emotional health.
Lunch with a Leader: A Decade of Happiness Study
Jones set out to explore a subject that many purveyors of the dismal science usually deem untouchable... Unless you provide them [economists] with the framework to manage and track the well-being and happiness of their people they re not going to do anything about it, he says...The work and ideas of Jones ...soon gained momentum. In 2009, the-then French president, Nicholas Sarkozy, announced a plan to measure happiness instead of gross domestic product, a more traditional state benchmark. The UK followed several years later, with the creation of a National Well-being index in 2012... [Jones has] a level of insight into happiness that might rival that of an ancient sage.
Paul Crompton, Journalist
Al Arabiya News Channel
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE HAPPINESS IN SABAH (MALAYSIA)
The idea of happiness is not new. Many researchers wanted to include or incorporate happiness in their work. Thomas Jefferson claims that pursuit for happiness must be in line with life and liberty. Jeremy Bentham shows that public policy is accountable for happiness. In 1972, Gross National Happiness focused in increasing the citizen's happiness in Bhutan. But the quantitative measures used was not very clear. In 2005, Med Jones improved the Gross National Happiness and changed its name to Gross National Well-Being. Gross National Well-Being uses measured based on the socio economic development characteristics.
International Conference on Economics
Shee Siew Yiap and Caroline Geetha, Faculty of Business, Economics and Accountancy,
University of Malaysia Sabah,
National development is usually measured using GDP (gross domestic product) or GNP (gross national product)...There can be no doubt that accurately measuring psychological factors like happiness, contentment and harmonious relations is a most difficult task due to their subjective nature but nevertheless some measurements can be made. Significant effort is being expended in this venture. The president of the International Institute of Management proposed that the following measures be included in arriving at the GNH. These are economic wellness, environmental wellness, physical wellness, mental wellness, social wellness, workplace wellness, and political wellness. These all contribute to citizens happiness and constitute a more thorough and accurate measure of development.... Progress must include the human element. Thus plans for national development must assume a more holistic approach...This requires a fresh and bold approach to developmental economics in which the happiness and welfare of people come first. For this to happen we must first find the right leaders and enlightened thinkers.
Professor Prakash Persad, University of Trinidad & Tobago
(Trinidad and Tobago)
Developing and defining the model
of wellbeing in the educational context
..there were other influential studies which supported and informed the framework within (the design of this framework within the UK secondary school context). A model that explains wellbeing through broader organisational structures and systems is reflected in research by the president of the International Institute of Management, Med Jones (2006) who researched wellbeing on a national scale....This model is holistic and encompasses all three domains from the main framework of my research.... Indeed Jones model represents the finer detail of the final model of wellbeing which enabled the inclusion of relevant factors such as conflict... These factors can then be measured quantitatively; as Med Jones has demonstrated in his seven metric measures of socio-economic development .
..Subjective expressions of wellbeing within the school working environment it is argued in my research can be transformed into meaningful quantitative data to explore issues that surround wellbeing (Jones, 2006).. The purpose of the... framework is to bridge the development gap between objective western, yet incomplete socioeconomic policy framework and holistic yet subjective eastern philosophy . (Jones, 2006)
Research Paper: Teachers Perceptions of
Their Own Wellbeing At Work
Vivienne Ekwulugo, PhD
Doctor of Education,
Brunel University London
The History of a Cultural Movement that Aspired to Transform America
[Among the 20th century ones] the International Institute of management's Gross National Wellbeing...
(Page 232 Note: 55). Oxford University Press
Daniel Horowitz, A Historian and Professor of American Studies Emeritus at Smith College
Mary Huggins Gamble Foundation Chair
Design Against Crime - A Human Centered Approach
In 2005, International Institute of Management proposed Gross National Happiness metric which covers factors such as combination of complaints of domestic conflicts, lawsuits, and crime rates. In the UK, research into Wellbeing conducted by the Office of National Statistics (2016), includes crime as a factor.
Social Responsibilities Series (Book)
Caroline L. Davy and Andrew W. Wootton
A New Socioeconomic Development Framework
For the past eight decades many scientists and politicians have recognized the limitations of Gross Domestic (GDP) and GNP centered public policy. However, only in the last decade the world has seen a real advancement in providing an alternative to GDP development model... Gross National Wellbeing or GNW, (Jones, 2005) a.k.a Gross National Happiness (GNH)...a policy making and measurement tool centered on mental and physical health and wellbeing with an integrated framework that measures subjective and objective wellbeing covering economic, health & safety, social and education, and government...After 2005, the research on the subject exploded. Several public, academic and private initiatives were launched by famous economists and organizations...After studying the literature, all initiatives from 2009 until 2016 use similar frameworks with similar dimensions, just rearranged or presented in different ways to suit the perspective of the authors... GNW can be used at the individual level, at the regional level as well as the national level. All investments of public time, effort, money and projects should be tested against this integrated multidimensional model instead of the production based model (GNP).
Book: Wake up India - Essays for our Times
The white paper produced and addressed to America primarily by IIM as a result of the above mentioned survey is worth looking at briefly, for the sake of Indian cities...The state, the government - the rulers - the laws/the judiciary, the bureaucracy/administration ...are not entirely responsible for this state of things, the paper suggests. The truth is that such radical poverty - a giant problem - cannot be tackled or alleviated on a giant footing if nation and state... remain intact as the main ideological concepts and philosophical constructs of the twenty first century.
Ampat Varghese Koshy, PhD Education
How to Calculate Your Net Happiness
In 2006, Med Jones, the president of the International Institute of Management, proposed an index that treats happiness as a socioeconomic metric.
Marelisa Fabrega, Juris Doctor
Georgetown University Law Center
Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA)
Key Findings and Recommendations (Well-being / Happiness)
There is a strong argument for gaining a better understanding of the happiness of a population. Jones states that the mental and emotional well-being of citizens improves their performance and broadens the intellectual, physical and social resources of a nation. ...Happiness and wellbeing are inexplicably linked to health, mental health as well as economic factors....The work of the public sector as a whole is to reduce unhappiness.
JSNA Steering Board, Leicestershire, England
Real Solutions for a Troubled Economic System
In 2006, Med Jones, President of International Institute of Management proposed tracking seven wellness areas (for Gross National Happiness)
Professor Philip Kotler, PhD. Financial Times' One of the Most Influential Management Gurus
Kellogg School of Management
Psychology Today Journal - The Missing Piece in Sustainable Peace
The enhancement of current data-based indices for annual reporting on state and regional levels of sustainable peace. This project could build on the Global Peace Index for measuring and reporting on sustainable peace worldwide, but integrate promotive, pro-social assessments. This initiative could be informed by such initiatives as the Gross National Happiness Index (Med Jones, 2006), the eight bases of a Culture of Peace (UN Resolution A/RES/52/13), and the Peace Scale (Klein, Goertz & Diehl, 2008).
Peter T. Coleman
Director of the ICC and Conflict Resolution
Sustainability and Complexity, a Few Lessons from Modern Systems Thinking
Operationalization and measure of sustainability and sustainable
development (One of the models is Gross National Happiness designed
by the International Institute of Management - (See Reference
Professor of Economics
University of Krakow
Creating A Happy Taiwan - National Thesis Competition Library
Med Yones, proposed considering happiness as a socioeconomic development goal and proposed seven measures including mental and emotional health
National Pingtung Women's Library
National Chung Hsing University
Book: Grassroots mobilization, Co-production of Public Policy and
the Promotion of Participatory Democracy by the Brazilian Solidarity
Med Yones, the president of the International Institute of Management, conceives quality of life as being inseparable from good governance and operationalized these concepts in 2006 as a set of macroeconomic statistical indicators. This metric measures socioeconomic development by tracking seven development areas, including the nation's mental and emotional health. GNH value is proposed to be an index function of the total average per capita of the following measures, each of them being a combination of a plurality of related indicator.
Dr. Ana Margarida Esteve, PhD Department of Sociology
Co-founder of Associa o Academia Cidad The Citizenship Academy
The American International Institute of management has presented a well-being GNW combination meter. The model includes seven sub-areas that each has an impact on experiencing well-being.
Mental Health Project - Thesis
Jenni Koivuranta, and Katariina Ylinampa
Department of Health and Welfare
Lapland University of Applied Sciences
What is Sustainability?
It (happiness policy) would also generally be considered impossible to design. This is because it is very hard to know what makes people happy... if measured by objective standards, turns out to be equivalent to what we call well-being [Yones, Med]... However, to the extent that happiness does depend on objective conditions external to the individual, policy can and indeed should promote them.
Institute for Rural Research, Geography and Environment, University
of Aberdeen, Scotland, (UK)
Tom Kuhlman Agricultural Economics Research Institute, Wageningen University, (Netherlands)
Book: International Community Organizing: Wellbeing
One way of thinking about the quality of life is exploring the questions under the concept of wellbeing. This is mostly subjective...but there are also attempts to produce more objectives ways of measure well-being linked...For our purpose a more applicable example comes from Med Jones (2006) who identified seven measures of wellness...There are macro indicators to suggest how well a society is, or is not, doing in promoting over all wellness of its population. They can of course scaled down to look at urban areas and it would reasonable to ask how far the community organizations has had an impact on these indicators.
Manager Post Graduate Program in Community Development
University of Glasgow Scotland
Rod Purcell, Board Member International Association of Community Development
American Society of Public Administration - Environmental Policy
GNH, like ecological economics, embraces a systems approach, connecting many components of the human system in order to determine overall happiness (International Institute of Management 2006)
Prof. Chad McGuire
University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth
The first GNH (Gross National Happiness) survey...The metric measures socioeconomic development by tracking 7 development areas including the nation's mental and emotional health... Since then, the kingdom of Bhutan, with the support of UNDP (UN Development Program), began to put this concept into practice, and has attracted the attention of the rest of the world with its new formula to measure the progress of a community or nation.
Chandigarh College of Education
Professor at UITTR, Chandigarh University
Rethinking Policy Intervention: Green Growth
A second generation version of GNH proposed an index function of economic, environmental, mental, physical, workplace, political, and social wellness... Similar to Europe 2020, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) has put an initiative called Strategy 2020 forward. In the past few decades, Asia and the Pacific region have been experiencing rapid growth. But concerns regarding the inclusiveness, sustainability and environmental impact demands a new development approach, innovative thinking and cooperative actions.
Bhishma Bhusal, PhD Economics
Under Secretary at National Reconstruction Authority
Government of Nepal
Can government deliver on issues like happiness and tolerance?
This week, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid, Vice President of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai, declared a new federal cabinet. It included a new minister of state for happiness a post that surprised some international observers... Over several decades, the idea was developed in different private-sector and academic institutions. The International Institute of Management in 2005 proposed a gross national well-being index In 2010, the University of Oxford launched the multidimensional poverty index that promotes analysis of psychological well-being, and in 2014, the UK government launched its own well-being statistics. In 2012, the United Nations general assembly adopted a resolution where it recognised the pursuit of happiness is a fundamental human goal and stated that gross domestic product does not adequately reflect the happiness and well-being of people .
...This is not without good reason and in the Arab world, there are at least two examples (Egypt and Tunisia) of where an ignorance of a country's well-being preceded upheaval...If we return to the root of the well-being or happiness indexes that are now ingrained in the international community, there is a real opportunity for the UAE in the creation of this portfolio. The new happiness minister's (Ohood Al Roumi) challenge is a real one and the stakes are high. This is true well beyond the UAE. Rather than be surprised that there is a post of minister of state for happiness, we ought to see the position as incredibly important and scrutinise its developments.
Dr HA Hellyer,
Associate fellow at the Royal United Services Institute in London,
Non-resident senior fellow at the Rafik Hariri Centre for the Middle East at the Atlantic Council in Washington, DC.
The National Newspaper
Dubai Government Happiness Initiative
Med Jones receives Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid's "win = victory and love" appreciation award for his kind participation [in UAE's first happiness forum] which has had significant impact on helping in people's happiness, serving community, and for social partnership.
Major General Mohammed Al Marri
Head of the commission for social development and Director General, GDRFA, Dubai
Kingdom of Happiness
In recent months, demonstrators around the world have been demanding a change in the current capitalist system. In the United States alone, demonstrations were held in about 100 cities under the slogan "Occupy Wall Street" - a call that calls for a halt to financial rule based solely on economic growth. GDP, a measure that examines and compares the gross domestic product of the countries of the world, is an economic prism that is too narrow to look at human progress... The latest development in the index published in 2006 by American professor Med Jones, president of the International Institute of Management (IIM) in the United States, answers the overcomes this disadvantage. Jones stated that the degree of happiness of a given country can be estimated according to the total per capita average of the following criteria (thus increasing the number of subjects).
Haaretz Newspaper Israel
Critical Assessment of the Feasibility For Religious Application
The rationale behind this proposal [IIM GNH Index] was that the gross domestic product growth rate is not a comprehensive measure to determine the country's health and well-being. In the new measurement measure the wellbeing of the nation.
Dr Ali Paya is a Professor of Philosophy at the Islamic College (London), Professor of Philosophy of Science at the Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (Tehran), and a Visiting Professor at the Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations.
Effect of Vertical Integration on Multidimensional Well‑being of
Fish Farmers in Lagos State Fish‑hub, Nigeria
The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Gross National Wellness (GNW) Index and Average Treatment Effect (ATE). The result of the GNW Index shows that both the integrated and non‑integrated farmers ranked the indicators of multidimensional wellness in the same order. They were satisfied with their social relations (8.70); physical and health status (7.91); mental and emotional status (7.41); work and income status (5.87) as well as their economic and retirement status (5.68). However, they were dissatisfied with the political and government condition (4.73) as well as their living environment (3.77)
Ayinde, Hussain Kobe Ibrahim, Mercy Funke Salami, Lanre Ebenezer
Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin
Building a Viable Nigeria in the World Petroleum Crisis
The imminent "World Oil Crisis" has far reaching implications that could compound our current poor state of national well-being. It indeed calls for an extensive brainstorming..Nations with foresight are beginning to device mitigation efforts and develop feasible alternatives... Viable States have positive indicators that derive from enabling and supportive infrastructure and systems...This can be supported with the Gross National Wellness Index (GNW Index).
Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE)
Assessing Financing Models to the Goals of Sustainable Consumption
Yones's (2006) work brings clarity to measures which could be used instead of GDP. Yones (2006) calls it Gross National Wellness (GNW). The metric measures socioeconomic development by tracking seven development areas... there is movement in thought and policy towards better alignment with social and ecological systems, and in understanding what these metrics measures are give a better understanding of the purpose or goal of the economic system.
University of Pretoria
Toward The Gross National Wellness
If one succeeds in getting a mechanism that works it is possible to get the tallest index of happiness...With this strategy it is possible to effectively direct toward new values the human, both individual and collective behaviours. If the objective of a true democracy is that to give to every individual the dignity, the happiness, the parity with the others...then it is necessary to study and to predispose not only the material context, but also the mental one, in which to achieve.
Economics and MBA
HEC Lausanne - School of Business
University of Bologna
GNH Instead of GDP?
Med Yones, president of International Institute of Management, moved the concept of the GNH to another level, treating it as a socioeconomic development metric.
Historical Time Line of Happiness Development Initiatives:
1972- Bhutan's King introduced the Gross National Happiness (GNH) philosophy. (IIM note: This a common error made by many in academia and media. In I972, Sicco Mansholt used the phrase in a letter to the European Commission. Despite wide erroneous citations, Bhutan used the same phrase many years later.)
2005-International Institute of Management introduced second generation GNH (GNH 2.0), the first GNH Index and the first Global GNH Index Survey
2006-The International Institute of Management published a policy white paper for the implementation of GNH philosophy in the US
2007-Thailand released Green and Happiness Index (GHI).
2009-In the United States, the Gallup poll system launched the happiness survey collecting data on national scale. The Gallup Well-Being Index
2010-The Centre for Bhutan Studies further defined the original four pillars...he Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative OPHI at the University of Oxford in UK, launched the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for the United Nations Development Programme, (UNDP). Similar to the GNH Index of 2005, OPHI promotes collection and analysis of data on five dimensions including Quality of work, Empowerment, Physical safety, Ability to go about without shame, Psychological wellbeing.
2011- In 2011, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution which recognised happiness as a fundamental human goal and called for a more inclusive, equitable and balanced approach to economic growth that promotes the happiness and well-being of all peoples .
2012- The first ever Happiness took place and the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution which decreed that the International Day of Happiness would be observed every year on 20 March. It was celebrated for the first time in 2013.
MANIMEKALAI, Editor in Chief.
Problem of Measuring and Comparing the Level of Economic Development
A number of problems of traditional indicators hinders the state to effectively carry out its activities and correctly assess the welfare of society... Prominent scientists and economists, laureates of the Nobel Prize in economics, engaged in questions of qualitative and accurate measurement of the economic development of countries and the world society at different times. These are the works of Nobel laureates in economics S. Kuznets , , R. Solow, J. Stiglitz and A. Sen...
Of great importance for the work were the works on the study of the problems of traditional economic indicators and the proposal of alternative ones, conducted by A.G. Rodionov-Zrazesky, T. Kalenn, N. Marx and A. Simms, R. Constance, M. Jones, R. Basu...
In 2006, based on that concept, M. Jones proposed 7 indicators by which the GNH / GNW could be measured. In fact, this approach determines happiness from the socioeconomic point of view of measuring human development. It can be noted that not all indicators are purely economic. However, in most cases they are both quantitative, i.e. most of them can be measured due to statistical data, and also the GNH contains a qualitative measurement, a number of indicators are those...
On July 19, 2011, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution entitled "Happiness: a holistic approach to development,"...
In 2011, China
began to realize its own happiness index... Conclusion: The importance
of macroeconomic indicators in the modern world is determined by the
desire of the state to improve the quality and well-being of its
citizens. Qualitative indicators that adequately reflect the problem are
necessary for the state when drawing up the necessary policy of reform
and state participation in the economy.
Repetitora . RU (Educator Library of Scientific Articles)
Happiness Index: A New Standard for Evaluating Rights and Legal
Happiness is a problem worthy of consideration by the legal scholars. In the history of human ideas, happiness has the dual tension of virtue and sensibility... The necessity of jurisprudence to explore the issue of well-being Happiness is a value pursuit that no race, government or nation will reject. It is not only a higher-order value, but also a complex of multiple values, and all other values are Happiness and service... There are many ways to calculate the happiness index. It can be calculated not only through economic data, but also from a psychological point of view. It should also be measured by specific indicators such as legislation, law enforcement, and justice. When the International Institution of Management of the United States conducted a survey on national well-being, it mainly focused on evaluating the quality of democracy, individual freedom, foreign conflicts, and other indicators of political well-being. In terms of social well-being, it mainly focused on internal conflicts and Dispute resolution mechanisms, social discrimination, divorce rates, public interest litigation, crime rates, social security, and other indicators.
China Law Society: China Law Innovation Network - Miaowen Gong Institute of Law
Li Lei Feng, Jurist Tsinghua University
Developing Life Cycle Environmental Indicators
In 2005, the International Institute of Management, USA proposed Gross National Well-being (GNW) index, which is known as the second generation GNH. The purpose of the new generation GNH was to implement a practical and more comprehensive framework that can bridge the development gap between the objective but incomplete western socioeconomic policy framework and the holistic but subjective eastern political philosophy. In 2009, the Gallup poll system organised national happiness survey in USA based on this GNW model.
Sheikh Mohammad Shafiqul Alam, PhD
Queensland University of Technology
20 Visions of Life in the Year 2020
"We will certainly see a new definition of GDP as a result as well (maybe even gross national wellbeing )."
Gerd Leonhard, Futurist
Fellow of the Royal Society for the Arts
Selected Think Tank Government Papers and Articles
For bio and media information, please visit Med Jones' Bio page
Think Tank Government and Public Administration Training
Other Management Courses
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